Archive for Hardware

Best Wireless Router for Home

Best Wireless Router for Home

Written by Robert Conrad

Deciding on the best wireless router for home use you have to ask what you need a wireless router for. You undoubtedly want to choose an “N” router. Wireless-n routers offer much superior coverage and throughput speed than “G” routers and they are now affordable. The last thing you need to occur is to lose the signal going from one room to another. The supplementary things to look at carefully are your budget, use, and features you demand because different routers are made for assorted target audiences. The one thing to be aware of is that you get what you pay for. Two routers can have identical specifications but one could contain substandard parts. So like for like, considering warranties, availability, dependability, and quality, the “best wireless router for home” use will in no way be the cheapest nor the most expensive. We nevertheless will compare the basic aspects of performance in speed, reception distance, and consumer satisfaction. The latter being the best measure for determining whether the router chosen is truly the “best wireless router for home” use.

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RAM, memory, disk space

What is all this stuff?


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What is RAM?

Written by Tom Paine


RAM is a moniker for Random Access Memory. It acts as a short-term memory much like the human brain to store a wealth of information. The RAM is accessible through the computer’s brain called the CPU which stands for Central Processing Unit. RAM has the capability of being retrieved only while a computer is on. When the computer is turned off the RAM is no longer accessible. ROM chips along with BIOS (computer boot firmware) allows the RAM information to be retrievable when the computer is rebooted.

RAM size and Location on the Computer System

Most computers come equipped with 256 million bytes of RAM already on the computer. Additional RAM can be placed within the system. However, there is usually a limitation placed upon just how much RAM can be added to a computer system. RAM is not random as its name would lead one to believe. The RAM is highly controlled and the storage can be directly ascertained. There is a decisive method that RAM utilizes to make its memory available to certain areas of the computer system.

Forms for RAM

RAM is what is known as discrete microchips which means that it is separate. An additional form of RAM is modules which attach into outlets in the motherboard of the computer. A network of electrical pathways to the processor allows the connection to spark for the RAM.

Why is RAM Important

RAM serves the very important function of retrieving information that must be accessed in a quick manner. This operation is very similar to the human brain’s function in retrieving necessary facts from short term memory. Open files and the utilization of applications on a computer systems requires the assistance of RAM. Users that play alot of video games with detailed graphics or keep alot of folders open while on their computer, will need the use of additional RAM. This will allow them to better access the information they need when the time comes. RAM is held onto a limited time, but it allows the information to come up quickly and without much fuss on the part of the computer user.

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ROM, RAM and HDD design

Written by Dean Barnard

Copyright (c) 2007 Dean Barnard


ROM, Read only Memory

The data or information stored in these types of memories is not changeable. It therefore does not require electrical power to retain information. The ROM chip or IC contains rows and columns of diodes. The presence or absence of diode in a particular row defines weather it is a binary one or zero. The content of a ROM is permanent and care has to be taken while designing it. It is not possible to rewrite a ROM. If change is necessitated, the whole chip has to be discarded. But once properly designed, they are robust, consume less power and cheap to manufacture.

The different types of ROM are:

1.PROM, Programmable Read only Memory
The design of ROM is made easier by the PROM. PROM contains a fuse at the junction of each row and column of the grid. In the initial stage the complete grid represents a binary one. When an electric charge is passed through it, it ruptures the fuse and becomes a zero.

2.EPROM Erasable Programmable Read only Memory
This is an improvement on PROM. Ultraviolet light is used to erase the information. This is a tedious process and excess exposure may lead to destruction of the ROM.

3.EEPROM, Electrical Erasable Programmable Read only Memory
This kind of ROM is popular in memory sticks. The required portion of the memory can be erased or written on in a selective basis.

RAM, Random Access Memory

This type of memory is essential for the working of a computer. It is a integrated chip consisting of rows and columns of a pair of transistor and a capacitor forming a grid. If the capacitor is charged at 50 % or more, it reflects a binary one. Due to the nature of a capacitor (it discharges at a very fast rate), it is required to charge them periodically. This is called a refresh cycle. In addition to the charging circuitry, it consists of a control circuit which is used to read and write data. Since the data can be accessed and written dynamically, these are called dynamic random access memory. The combined working of all the devices makes it slow in working.

Another type of RAM is the static RAM, where the integrated chip consists of a series of Flip-flops instead of a combination of a transistor and a capacitor. In the absence of a capacitor, there is no need to cater for the refresh cycle and this makes the static RAM considerably faster than a dynamic RAM. A Flip-flop consists of a few transistors and therefore the cost of a static RAM is higher, though it is compact.

Hard Disk Drive (HDD)

A hard disk drive is used to store vast amount of data. The data access time and speed are not critical for this device. The speed of a HDD is specified by the RPM or the rotations per minute of the rotating disc. For an IDE based HDD, the RPM is 5400 or 7200. Faster hard discs with better access time are called SCSI drives which can attain much faster speeds. Since, the HDD works on the principle of rotating disc, its efficiency is restricted by the speed of rotation of mechanical components. Transporting a HDD while in operation may cause a crash and damage the disc.

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